Akute diabetische Stoffwechselentgleisungen
Over time, diabetes patients are at increased risk for microvascular and macrovascular complications leading to increased morbidity and mortality compared to metabolically healthy people. In addition, acute life-threatening metabolic derangements at first manifestation as well as during the course of the disease may occur, comprising diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and hypoglycaemia. Diabetes-related emergencies require fast diagnosis and early treatment initiation as well as close monitoring of vital signs and laboratory parameters. The present article gives an overview on the acute metabolic complications in diabetes, focussing on diagnostic work-up and treatment goals.